(1) The sentence is an expression of an idea and is complex. The subject and predicate are essential to the complete expression of a sentence, which may be very brief. Indeed one word may have both as απεχει (Mark 14:41).
και ερχεται το τριτον και λεγει αυτοις καθευδετε το λοιπον και αναπαυεσθε απεχει ηλθεν η ωρα ιδου παραδιδοται ο υιος του ανθρωπου εις τας χειρας των αμαρτωλω
And he cometh the third time, and saith to them, `Sleep on henceforth, and rest – it is over; the hour did come; lo, the Son of Man is delivered up to the hands of the sinful;
Indeed the sentence does not absolutely require the expression of either subject or predicate. Both may be suggested or implied as in the case of ουχι (Luke 1:60) and ναι κυριε (John 11:27)
και αποκριθεισα η μητηρ αυτου ειπεν ουχι αλλα κληθησεται ιωαννης
and his mother answering said, `No, but he shall be called John.’
λεγει αυτω ναι κυριε εγω πεπιστευκα οτι συ ει ο χριστος ο υιος του θεου ο εις τον κοσμον ερχομενος
she said to him, `Yes, sir, I have believed that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who is coming to the world.’
(2) The subject may be itself the center of a group of words (substantives, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc) η εντολη η εις ζωην (Rom 7:10)
και ευρεθη μοι η εντολη η εις ζωην αυτη εις θανατον
and the command that is for life, this was found by me for death;
(3) The predicate may also be the center of a group of words τοιουτους ζητει τους προσκυνουντας αυτον (John 4:23). Subject and predicate are thus the two foci of the sentence.
αλλ ερχεται ωρα και νυν εστιν οτε οι αληθινοι προσκυνηται προσκυνησουσιν τω πατρι εν πνευματι και αληθεια και γαρ ο πατηρ τοιουτους ζητει τους προσκυνουντας αυτον
but, there come an hour, and it now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father also does seek such to worship him;
(4) The predicate is either a verb or substantive, adjective, etc. with a copula (expressed or implied). Thus ο δε αγρος εστιν ο κοσμος (Mark 13:38)
ο δε αγρος εστιν ο κοσμος το δε καλον σπερμα ουτοι εισιν οι υιοι της βασιλειας τα δε ζιζανια εισιν οι υιοι του πονηρου
and the field is the world, and the good seed, these are the sons of the reign, and the darnel are the sons of the evil one,
Confer John 4:11 and Rom 1:7:
λεγει αυτω η γυνη κυριε ουτε αντλημα εχεις και το φρεαρ εστιν βαθυ ποθεν ουν εχεις το υδωρ το ζων
The woman said to him, `Sir, you have not even a vessel to draw with, and the well is deep; whence, then, have you the living water?
πασιν τοις ουσιν εν ρωμη αγαπητοις θεου κλητοις αγιοις χαρις υμιν και ειρηνη απο θεου πατρος ημων και κυριου ιησου χριστου
to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called saints; Grace to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ!
(5) Apposition is found both with the subject as ανηρ προφητης (Luke 24:19) or the predicate as ον προεθετο ο θεος ιλαστηριον (Rom 3:25). As a rule the verb agrees with the subject in person.
και ειπεν αυτοις ποια οι δε ειπον αυτω τα περι ιησου του ναζωραιου ος εγενετο ανηρ προφητης δυνατος εν εργω και λογω εναντιον του θεου και παντος του λαου
And he said to them, `What things?’ And they said to him, `The things about Jesus of Nazareth, who became a man – a prophet – powerful in deed and word, before God and all the people,
ον προεθετο ο θεος ιλαστηριον δια της πιστεως εν τω αυτου αιματι εις ενδειξιν της δικαιοσυνης αυτου δια την παρεσιν των προγεγονοτων αμαρτηματων
whom God did set forth a mercy seat, through the faith in his blood, for the showing forth of His righteousness, because of the passing over of the bygone sins in the forbearance of God
The first person prevails when two or more are used as εγω και ο πατηρ εν εσμε (John 10:30).
εγω και ο πατηρ εν εσμε
I and the Father are one
(6) The subject and the predicate agree in number except that construction according to the sense often prevails over mere grammatical number as ο οχλος εστρωσαν (Mat 21:8).
ο δε πλειστος οχλος εστρωσαν εαυτων τα ιματια εν τη οδω αλλοι δε εκοπτον κλαδους απο των δενδρων και εστρωννυον εν τη οδω
and the very great crowd spread their own garments in the way, and others were cutting branches from the trees, and were strewing in the way,
The neuter plural may take a singular (Luke 4:41) or a plural verb (ibid).
εξηρχετο δε και δαιμονια απο πολλων κραζοντα και λεγοντα οτι συ ει ο χριστος ο υιος του θεου και επιτιμων ουκ εια αυτα λαλειν οτι ηδεισαν τον χριστον αυτον ειναι
And demons also were coming forth from many, crying out and saying`You are the Christ, the Son of God;’ and rebuking, he did not suffer them to speak, because they knew him to be the Christ.
Paul sometimes uses the literary plural as in 2 Cor 10:13.
2 Corinthians 10:13
ημεις δε ουχι εις τα αμετρα καυχησομεθα αλλα κατα το μετρον του κανονος ου εμερισεν ημιν ο θεος μετρου εφικεσθαι αχρι και υμων
and we in regard to the unmeasured things will not boast ourselves, but after the measure of the line that the God of measure did appoint to us to reach even unto you;
(7) Substantives and adjectives as a rule agree in gender. Some adjectives have no distinctive feminine form as εχει ζωην αιωνιον (John 6:47).
αμην αμην λεγω υμιν ο πιστευων εις εμε εχει ζωην αιωνιον
Verily, verily, I say to you, He who is believing in me, have life eternal;
Often gender is according to sense as in (Eph 4:17-18) εθνη, εσκοτισμενοι. Words vary in gender also.
τουτο ουν λεγω και μαρτυρομαι εν κυριω μηκετι υμας περιπατειν καθως και τα λοιπα εθνη περιπατει εν ματαιοτητι του νοος αυτων
This, then, I say, and I testify in the Lord; ye are no more to walk, as also the other nations walk, in the vanity of their mind,
εσκοτισμενοι τη διανοια οντες απηλλοτριωμενοι της ζωης του θεου δια την αγνοιαν την ουσαν εν αυτοις δια την πωρωσιν της καρδιας αυτων
being darkened in the understanding, being alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart,
(8) Adjectives, participles, and substantives in apposition agree usually in case. But anacoluthon is common in all Greek in this matter, especially in colloquial Greek or impassioned argument.
Note καθαριζον (Mark 7:19); πρεσβυτεροις, εκλεξαμενους, γραψαντες (Acts 15:22-23)
οτι ουκ εισπορευεται αυτου εις την καρδιαν αλλ εις την κοιλιαν και εις τον αφεδρωνα εκπορευεται καθαριζον παντα τα βρωματα
because it does not enter into his heart, but into the belly, and into the drain it does go out, purifying all the meats.’
τοτε εδοξεν τοις αποστολοις και τοις πρεσβυτεροις συν ολη τη εκκλησια εκλεξαμενους ανδρας εξ αυτων πεμψαι εις αντιοχειαν συν τω παυλω και βαρναβα ιουδαν τον επικαλουμενον βαρσαβαν και σιλαν ανδρας ηγουμενους εν τοις αδελφοις
Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, chosen men out of themselves to send to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas -Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, leading men among the brethren
γραψαντες δια χειρος αυτων ταδε οι αποστολοι και οι πρεσβυτεροι και οι αδελφοι τοις κατα την αντιοχειαν και συριαν και κιλικιαν αδελφοις τοις εξ εθνων χαιρειν
having written through their hand thus: `The apostles, and the elders, and the brethren, to those in Antioch, and Syria, and Cilicia, brethren, who are of the nations, greeting;
(9) Sentences are either simple or compound. Compound sentences are either paratactic or hypotactic (co-ordinate or subordinate). Co-ordinate sentences may have connectives as is usual (και, δε, etc) or not (asyndeton as 1 Cor 13:7),
1 Corinthians 13:7
παντα στεγει παντα πιστευει παντα ελπιζει παντα υπομενει
all things bears, all things believes, all things hopes, all things endures.
Even subordinate sentences may have asyndeton of the conjunction as θελεις ειπωμεν (Luke 9:54)
ιδοντες δε οι μαθηται αυτου ιακωβος και ιωαννης ειπον κυριε θελεις ειπωμεν πυρ καταβηναι απο του ουρανου και αναλωσαι αυτους ως και ηλιας εποιησεν
And his disciples James and John having seen, said, `Lord, will you that we may command fire to come down from the heaven, and to consume them, as also Elijah did?’
Asyndeton (from the Greek: ἀσύνδετον, “unconnected”, sometimes called asyndetism) is a stylistic scheme in which conjunctions are deliberately omitted from a series of related clauses.
(10) Syntax deals with the relations of words with each other, of clauses with each other, with sentences, and with paragraphs.