Greek Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

  First Personal Pronoun   Second Personal Pronoun  
  Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative εγω, I ημεις, we συ, you υμεις, you
Genitive εμου or μου ημων σου υμων
Dative εμοι or μοι ημιν σοι υμιν
Accusative εμε or με ημας σε υμας

For the third personal pronoun, he, she, it, the three genders of an adjective-pronoun are employed: αυτος, self.

  Singular     Plural    
  Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative αυτος αυτη αυτο αυτοι αυται αυτα
Genitive αυτου αυτης αυτου αυτων αυτων αυτων
Dative αυτω αυτη αυτω αυτοις αυταις αυτοις
Accusative αυτον αυτην αυτο αυτους αυτας αυτα

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns combine the personal pronouns with the oblique cases of αυτος. In the singular the two are written as one word.

  First Person     Second Person  
  Singular     Singular  
  Masculine Feminine   Maculine Feminine
Genitive εμαυτου, of myself εμαυτης, of myself   σεαυτου, of yourself σεαυτης, of yourself
Dative εμαυτω, to myself εμαυτη, to myself   σεαυτω, to yourself σεαυτη, to yourself
Accusative εμαυτον, myself (obj.) εμαυτην. myself (obj.)   σεαυτον, yourself (obj.) σεαυτην, yourself (obj.)

The plurals of these forms are: ημων αυτων, of ourselves, ; υμιν, αυτοις, to yourselves, etc.

  Third Person       Third Person    
  Singular       Plural    
  Masculine Feminine Neuter   Masculine Feminine Neuter
Genitive εαυτου, of himself εαυτης, of herself εαυτου, of itself   εαυτων εαυτων εαυτων
Dative εαυτω, to himself εαυτη, to herself εαυτω, to itself   εαυτοις εαυταις εαυτοις
Accusative εαυτον, himself (obj.) εαυτην, herself (obj.) εαυτο, itself (obj.)   εαυτους εαυτας εαντα

This reflexive pronoun is sometimes written without the ε, as αυτου, αυτον, etc., and is only distinguished from the cases of αυτος by the aspirate `. Occasionally this reflexive pronoun is used for the first and second persons plural, e.g. τηω εαυτων σωτηριαν , “your own salvation” (Philippians 2:12).

Possessive Pronouns

Possesive pronouns are declined like adjectives of the first form:

First person singular: εμοσ, εμη, εμον, my
First person plural: ημετερος, ημετερα, ημετερον our
Second person singular: σος, ση, σον your, thy
Second person plural: υμετερος, υμετερα, υμετερον your

There is no third person possessive pronoun in the New Testament, the genitive case of αυτος or of εαυτου being used instead. For example, υιος εαυτου, or υιος αυτου, his own son , i.e. the son of the person who is subject of the sentence; υιος αυτου, his son i.e., the son of another person.

The genitive case of the other personal pronouns are also used most frequently with the force of the possessive.

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns follow the model of the Article.

Masculine Feminine Neuter Meaning
οδε ηδε τοδε this (here)
ουτος αυτη τουτο this (near)
εκεινος εκεινη εκεινο that (yonder)
ο αυτος η αυτη το αυτο the same

(a) ουτος is thus declined ( stem, τουτο-):

  Singular       Plural    
  Masculine Feminine Neuter   Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ουτος αυτη τουτο   ουτοι αυται ταυτα
Genitive τουτου ταυτης τουτου   τουτων τουτων τουτων
Dative τουτω ταυτη τουτω   τουτοις ταυταισ τουτοις
Accusative τουτον ταυτην τουτο   τουτους ταυτας ταυτα

The accent distinguishes the feminine of the nominative singular and plural, αυτη, αυται, from the corresponding cases of the αυτος, viz., αυτη, αυται.

(b) ο αυτος in all its cases is like the table for third personal pronoun αυτος in the table above, with the definite article prefixed. The neuter plural, nominative and accusative, is sometimes written ταυτα, being distinguished by the coronis (soft breathing) as well as by the accent, from ταυτα, these, neuter plural of ουτος.

(c) The demonstrative pronouns of quality, quantity and number:

  Masculine Feminine Neuter Meaning
Quality τοιουτοσ τοιαυτη τοιουτο such
Quantity τοσουτοσ τοισαυτη τοσουτο so great
Number τοσουτοι τοισαυται τοσαυτα so many

Relative Pronouns

(a) The relative pronoun, ος, η, ο, who or which, is thus declined:

  Singular       Plural    
  Masculine Feminine Neuter   Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ος η ο   οι αι α
Genitive ου ης ου   ων ων ων
Dative α η ω   οις αις οις
Accusative ον ην ο   ους ας α

(b) An indefinite relative, whoever, whatever, is made by combining enclitic τις with ος, η, ο. Both parts of the word are declined, as follows:

  Singular       Plural    
  Masculine Feminine Neuter   Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative οστις ητις ο, τι   οιτινες αιτινες ατινα

The nominative and accusative neuter singular is divided as above (sometimes by a space without comma), to distinguish the word from the conjunction, οτι that.

The other cases (except the Accusative neuter, like Nominative) are not found in the New Testament, but an old genitive masculine singular form, οτου, is used only in the adverbial phrase εωσ οτου as long as, until (Mat v.25, etc. ).

(c) Sometimes the relative is declined with the particle -περ (marking emphatic identity), and means the very one who ; sometimes with other indeclinable suffixes, e.g. οσγε who indeed.

(d) Derivative relative pronouns:

Quality οιος, such as
Quantity οσος, so great as
Number οσοι, plural of οσος, so many as

Interogative Pronouns

(a) The simple Interogative Pronoun is τις ; τι ; who? or what? Its declension is identical with that of the indefinite τισ, except that in the interogative the ι of the stem-syllable is accented throughout.

(b) Other interogative forms are employed, correlative to the pronoun in relative pronouns section above, and like them, denoting quality, quantity, and number. They all prefix the letter π- to the relative forms.

Quality ποιος , of what kind?
Quantity ποσος, how great?
Number ποσοι, how many?

(c) Indirect interrogatives prefix the letter to the direct forms beginning with the letter π. ‘Οποιος , of what kind? is the only one of these employed in the New Testament.

Distributive Pronouns

Distributive pronouns are declined like adjectives, and are as follows:


  Masculine Feminine Neuter Meaning
Singular αλλος αλλη αλλο another (numerically)
Plural αλλοι αλλαι αλλοι others


  Masculine Feminine Neuter Meaning
Singular ετερος ετερα ετερον other (different)
Plural ετεροι ετεραι ετερα others


  Masculine Feminine Neuter Meaning
Plural αμφοτεροι αμφοτεραι αμφοτερα both (only plural)

(d) αλληλων, of one another, used only in the genitive, dative, and accusative plural.

(e) εκαστος, εκαστη, εκαστον, each, used only in the singular; with doubtful exceptions, in Philippians 2:4; Revelation 6:11.

Table of Correlative Adjective Pronouns

  Demonstrative Relative Interrogative Dependent Interrogative Indefinite
Simple ουτος ος τις τις
Quality τοιουτος οιος ποιος οποιος
Quantity τοσουτος οσος ποσος

Note: Rule for the construction of adjectives are followed also by adjective pronouns. ‘The relative agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and person,’ (Third Concord), its case being determined by its own sentence.

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